When the Institute was incorporated as a non-profit by the founders of SeaWorld a year before the first SeaWorld opened in San Diego, their intent was to promote the study of marine animals toward the benefit of wild populations. Observing this conservation ethos, SeaWorld has sustained HSWRI scientists’ access to its zoological collections toward advancing a science-based understanding of the animals in their care. For almost 60 years, HSWRI scientists have studied basic animal physiology, sensory ecology and comparative behavior. This research has improved human understanding of these animals in the wild toward their conservation and advanced our basic knowledge of their optimum health and behaviors.

Selected Publications:
Awbrey, F.T. with M.E. Dahlheim. A Classification and comparison of Vocalizations of Captive Killer Whales (Orcinus orca). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72(3): 661-670. 1982.

Bowles, A.E. and R.C. Anderson. Behavioral responses and habituation of pinnipeds and small cetaceans to novel objects and simulated fishing gear with and without a pinger. Aquat Mamm. 38:161-188. 2012.

Bowles, A.E., S. Wisdom, and K. Anderson. Call development and behavior of ‘JJ,’ a rehabilitated gray whale calf, Eschrichtius robustus. Aquatic Mammals. 27(3):239-255. 2001.

Bowles, A.E., S.L. Denes, and M. Shane. Acoustic characteristics of ultrasonic coded transmitters for fishery applications: could marine mammals hear them?. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 128: 3223-3231. 2010.

Castellini, M.A., P.K. Yochem and J.M. Castellini. Differential concentration of glucose in red blood cells and plasma of a rehabilitating gray whale calf. Aquatic Mammals. 27(3): 277-278. 2001.

Cornell, L.H. with Jim Antrim. The Rehabilitation of Sea Otters, Proc. Marine Mammal Stranding Workshop, August, Athens, GA. Ontario Veterinary College, Univ. of Guelph, Ontario, Canada and New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.. 1977.

Cornell, L.H. with R.L Malvin and S.H. Ridgway. Renin and Aldosterone Levels in Dolphins and Sea Lions. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. Med. 157: 665-667. 1978.

Cornell. L.H. with G.L. Kooyman. Flow Properties of Expiration and Inspiration in a Trained Bottlenosed Porpoise. Physiol. Zool. 54 (1) : 55-61. 1981.

Cortes-Hinojosa G, Gulland FM, Goldstein T, Venn-Watson S, Rivera R, Archer LL, Wellehand JF Jr. Development and validation of a quantitative PCR for rapid and specific detection of California sea lion adenovirus 1 and prevalance in wild and managed populations. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 29:193-197. 2017.

Crance, J. L., A. E. Bowles and A. Garver. Evidence for vocal learning in juvenile male killer whales, Orcinus orca, from an adventitious cross-socializing experiment. Journal of Experimental Biology. 217:1229-1237. 2013.

Duffield, D.A. , D.K. Odell, J.F. Mc Bain, and B. Andrews. Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) reproduction at Sea World. Zoo Biology. 14:417-430. 1995.

Leatherwood, S., L.H. Cornell, and J.G. Antrim with G.A. Antonelis, Jr. Activity Cycle and Food Selection of Captive Sea Otters. Murrelet. 62: 6-9. 1981.

Musser, W.B., A.E. Bowles, D.M. Grebner and J.L. Crance. Differences in acoustic features of vocalizations produced by killer whales cross-socialized with bottlenose dolphins. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 136:1990-2002. 2014.

Nollens, H.H. , R. Rivera, G. Palacios, J.F. Wellehan, J.T. Saliki, S.L. Caseltine, C.R. Smith, E.D. Jensen, J. Hui, W.I. Lipkin, P.K. Yochem, R.S. Wells, J. St. Leger and S. Venn-Watson. New recognition of enterovirus infections in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Veterinary Microbiology. 139:170-175. 2009.

Quinley, N., J.A.K. Mazet, R. Rivera, T.L. Schmitt, C. Dold, J. McBain, V. Fritsch and P.K. Yochem. Serologic response of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to vaccination with a recombinant canine distemper vaccine. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 49:579-586. 2013.

Reidarson, T.R., J. McBain and P.K. Yochem. Medical and nutritional aspects of a rehabilitating California gray whale calf. Aquatic Mammals. 27(3): 215-221. 2001.

Robles-Sikisaka, R. , R. Rivera. H.H. Nollens, J. St. Leger, W.N. Durden, M. Stolen, J Burchell and J.F. Wellehan, Jr. Evidence of recombination and positive selection in cetacean papillomaviruses. Virol. 427:189-197. 2012.

Schlundt, C.E., R.L. Dear, D.S. Houser, A.E. Bowles, T. Reidarson, J.J. Finneran. Auditory evoked potentials in two short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 129: 1111-1116. 2011.

Stewart, B.S. Facilitation of post-release, long term recognition of a rehabilitated gray whale calf: Pigmentation and scar patterns of JJ. Aquatic Mammals. 27: 301-305. 2001.

Stewart, B.S. Introduction and background on the rescue, rehabilitation, and scientific studies of JJ, an orphaned California gray whale calf. Aquatic Mammals. 27: 294-300. 2001.

Stewart, B.S. J. Harvey, and P.K. Yochem. Post-release monitoring and tracking of a rehabilitated California Gray whale. Aquatic Mammals. 27 (3): 294-300. 2001.

Todd, F.S. Controlled Environment Maintenance and Propagation of Penguins. Proc. First International Birds in Captivity Synposium, 1978 (pub. 1981).  1981.

Todd, F.S. Establishment of a High Antarctic Penguin Colony and Controlled Environment Breeding of Adelie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). Ant. J. U.S. 13 (4): 153-154. 1978.

Todd, F.S. Penguin Husbandry and Breeding at Sea World, San Diego. Int. Zoo Year Book. 18: 72-77. 1978.

White, M.J. Jr. and L.H. Cornell with J.G. Jennings and W.F. Gandy. An Evaluation of Tagging, Marking, and Tattooing Techniques for Small Delphinids. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS SWFS. 16: 141 pp. 1981.