Hawkyard M, Stuart K, Drawbridge M, and Langdon C. 2019. The early life stages of California yellowtail (Seriola dorsalis) and white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) respond to food particle taste. Aquaculture 512: 734285.

Morra KE, Chikaraishi Y, Gandhi H, James HF, Rossman S, Wiley AE, Raine AF, Beck J, and Ostrom PH. 2019. Trophic declines and decadal-scale foraging segregation in three pelagic seabirds. Oecologia, 189: 395–406.

Salze GP, Davis D, Stuart K, and Drawbridge M. 2019. Effect of dietary taurine in the performance of broodstock and larvae of California yellowtail Seriola dorsalis. Aquaculture 511: 734262.

Southall BL, Finneran JJ, Reichmuth C, Nachtigall PE, Ketten DR, Bowles AE, Ellison WT, Nowacek DP, Tyack PL. 2019.  Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: updated scientific recommendations for residual hearing effects.  Aquatic Mammals 45:125-232.

Rousselet, E., M. Stolen, W.N. Durden, T. Jablonski, N.I. Stacy, and D.S. Rotstein. 2019.  Bilateral polycystic kidneys and focal renal cystadenoma in a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 55:258-261.Saunders SP, Farr MT, Wright AD, Bahlai CA, Riberio JW, Rossman S, Sussman AL, Arnold TW, and Zipkin EF.2019. Disentangling data discrepancies with integrated population models. Ecology, 100: e02714.

Stricker CA, Drexler JZ, Thorn KA, Duberstein JA and Rossman S. In Press. Carbon chemistry of intact versus chronically drained peatlands in the southeastern USA. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences.

Wiley AE, Rossman S, Ostrom PH, France CAM, Penniman J, Bailey C, Duvall F, Zipkin EF, and James HF. 2019. From ecologically equivalent individuals to contrasting colonies: quantifying isotopic niche and individual foraging specialization in an endangered oceanic seabird. Marine Biology, 39: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-019-3483-7.


Bengtson JL, Stewart BS.  2018. Crabeater seal. Pp. 230 – 232.   In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals.  3rd Edition.  (B. Wursig, J.G.M. Thewissen, K. Kovacs, eds.).   Academic Press, N.Y. 1488pp.

Bergman, A.M., Trushenski, J.T., and Drawbridge, M. In press. Addition of emulsifiers to hydrogenated soybean oil-based feeds for California Yellowtail. North American Journal of Aquaculture.

Browning J, Durden W, Stolen M, Fire S. In press.  Phycotoxin loads in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon estuary system and coastal Atlantic waters of Florida, USA (2002 – 2011). Harmful Algae.

Durden, W.N., G. O’Corry-Crowe, S. Shippee, T. Jablonski, S. Bechdel, M. Mazzoil, E. Howells, B. Symmonds, C. Londono, L. Moreland, F. Townsend, S.M. McCulloch and G. Bossart. In press. Small scale movement patterns, activity budgets and association patterns of radio-tagged Indian River Lagoon dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Aquatic Mammals.

Invasive Species Advisory Committee (Stewart BS). 2018. Reducing the Risk of Invasive Pathogens to Wildlife Health in the United States. United States Department of the Interior Technical Report 32018:1-10.

Rombenso, AN, Trushenski, JT, Drawbridge, M. 2018. Saturated lipids are more effective than others in juvenile California yellowtail feeds – Understanding and harnessing LC-PUFA sparing for fish oil replacement. Aquaculture 493:192-203.

Salze GP, Stuart KR, Jirsa DO, Davis DA, Drawbridge MA. 2018. Quantitative dietary taurine requirement for California Yellowtail, Seriola lalandi. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. doi: 10.1111/jwas.12418.

Schwebel L, Wegner N, Lowery M, Stuart K.  In press.  Swim bladder inflation failure affects energy allocation, growth, and feed conversion of California Yellowtail (Seriola dorsalis) in aquaculture.  Aquaculture.

Smith E, Stuart K, Hyde J, Purcell C, Morse G, Drawbridge M. In press.  Spawning dynamics and egg production characteristics of captive Seriola dorsalis assessed using parentage analyses.  Aquaculture.

Southall BL, Finneran JJ, Reichmuth C, Nachtigall PE, Ketten DR, Bowles AE, Ellison WT, Nowacek DP, Tyack PL. 2019.  Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: updated scientific recommendations for residual hearing effects.  Aquatic Mammals 45:125-232.

Standorf F, Cortes-Hinojosa G, Venn-Watson S, Rivera R, Archer LL, Wellehan JFX Jr. 2018. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome of an enteritis-associated bottlenose dolphin mastadenovirus supports a clade infecting the Cetartiodactyla. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 54:112-121.

Stewart BS.  2018. Diving behavior. Pp. 262 – 267. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. 3rd Edition. (B. Wursig, J.G.M. Thewissen, K. Kovacs, eds.). Academic Press, N.Y. 1488pp.

Stuart, K., Johnson, R., Armbruster, L. and Drawbridge, M. 2018. Arachidonic acid in the diet of captive California yellowtail Seriola dorsalis and its effects on egg quality. North American Journal of Aquaculture 80:97-106.

Stuart K, Losordo M, Olin P, Drawbridge M. 2018. Optimizing procedures for shipping marine fish eggs using white seabass, Atractoscion nobilis, as a model. Aquaculture 493(1):229-232.

Wegner NC, Drawbridge MA, Hyde JR. 2018. Reduced swimming and metabolic fitness of aquaculture-reared California Yellowtail (Seriola dorsalis) in comparison to wild-caught conspecifics. Aquaculture 486:51-56.

Yochem PK, Stewart BS. 2018. Hair and fur. Pp. 447-448. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals.  3rd Edition. (B. Wursig, J.G.M. Thewissen, K. Kovacs, eds.). Academic Press, N.Y. 1488pp.


Cortés-Hinojosa G, Gulland FM, Goldstein T, Venn-Watson S, Rivera R, Archer LL, Waltzek TB, Gray GC, Wellehan JF Jr. 2017. Development and validation of a quantitative PCR for rapid and specific detection of California sea lion adenovirus 1 and prevalence in wild and managed population. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 29:193-197.

Durden WN, Stolen ED, Jablonski TA, Pucket SA, Stolen MK. 2017. Monitoring seasonal abundance of Indian River Lagoon dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) using aerial surveys. Aquatic Mammals 43(1):90-112.

Nekolny SR, Denny MD, Biedenbach G, Howells EM, Mazzoil M, Durden WN, Moreland L, Lambert JD, and Gibson QA. In press. Effects of study area on home range estimates of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus. Current Zoology zox049.

Ostrom PH, Wiley AE, James HF, Rossman S, Walker WA, Zipkin EF, Chikaraishi Y. 2017. Broad-scale trophic shift in the pelagic North Pacific revealed by an oceanic seabird. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 284.

Salze GP, Davis DA, Jirsa DO, Drawbridge MA. 2017. Methionine requirement for juvenile white seabass, Atractoscion nobilis, using nonlinear models. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. doi: 10.1111/jwas12418.

Standorf F, Cortes-Hinojosa G, Venn-Watson S, Rivera R, Archer LL, Wellehan JFX Jr. 2017. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome of an enteritis-associated bottlenose dolphin mastadenovirus supports a clade infecting the Cetartiodactyla. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 54:112-121.

Stuart, K. M. Hawkyard, F. Barrows, M. Rust, and M. Drawbridge. 2017. Evaluation of dietary taurine concentrations in microparticulate diets provided to larval California yellowtail (Seriola dorsalis) post larvae. Aquaculture DOI: 10.1111/anu.12527.

Zipkin EF, Rossman S, Yackulic CB, Thorson JT, Campbell Grant EH. 2017. Integrating count and occupancy data to model population dynamics. Ecology 98:1640-1650.


Bowles AE, Musser WB, Flaherty Clark K, Denes SL, and Grebner DM. 2016.  Perspectives on the function of behaviors synchronized with calling in female killer whales, Orcinus orca:  patterns of bubbling and nodding in bouts. International Journal of Comparative Psychology 29.

Brando S, Bowles AE, Boye M, Dudzinski KM, van Elk N, Lucke K, McBain J, Singer R, Wahlberg M. 2016. Proceedings of the marine mammal welfare workshops hosted in the Netherlands and the USA in 2012. Aquatic Mammals 42:392-416.

Lopez, L.M., J.O. Soto, I.T Escamilla, M.F. Ibarra, L. Ochoa, M. Drawbridge, and H. Peres. 2016. Evaluation of carbohydrate-to-lipid ratio in diets supplemented with Bacillus subtilis probiotic strain on growth performance, body composition and digestibility in juvenile white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis, Ayres 1860). Aquaculture Research 47:1864–1873.

Rossman S, Ostrom PH, Gordon F, Zipkin EF.  2016. Beyond carbon and nitrogen: guidelines for estimating three-dimensional isotopic niche space. Ecology and Evolution: 6:2405-2413.

Rossman S, Yackulic CB, Saunders SP, Reid J, Davis R, Zipkin EF. 2016. Dynamic N-occupancy models: estimating demographic rates and local abundances from detection-nondetection data. Ecology 97:3300-3307.

Rossman S, Yackulic CB, Thorson JT, Campbell Grant EH. 2016. Integrating count and occupancy data to model population dynamics. Ecology 98:1640-1650.

Rotman F, Stuart K, Drawbridge M. 2016. Effects of taurine supplementation in live feeds on larval rearing performance of California yellowtail Seriola lalandi and white seabass Atractoscion nobilis. Aquaculture Research 1-8, doi:10.1111/are.12964.

Tania C, Blaesbjerg, Himawan MR, Noor BA, Suruan SS, Pranata B, Stewart BS.  2016. Characteristics of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) in Teluk Cenderawashih National Park, Indonesia.   QScience dx.doi.org/10.5339/qproc.2016.iwsc4.62.

Toha AH, Widodo N, Subhan B, Himawan MR, Tania C, Noor BA, Stewart BS, Madduppa HH. 2016. Close genetic relatedness of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) in the Indo-Pacific region. QScience dx.doi.org/10.5339/qproc.2016.iwsc4.31.

Wu Q, Conway J, Phillips KM, Stolen M, Durden WN, Fauquier D, McFee WE, Schwacke L. 2016. Detection of Brucella spp. in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus by a real-time PCR using blowhole swabs. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 120:241-244.


Bowles, AE, Grebner DM, Musser WB, Nash JS, Crance JL. 2015. Disproportionate emission of bubble streams with killer whale biphonic calls: perspectives on production and function. JASA Express Letters 137: EL165-170.

Buentello A, Jirsa D, Burrows FT, Drawbridge M. 2015. Minimizing fishmeal use in juvenile California yellowtail, Seriola lalandi, diets using non-GM soybeans selectively bred for aquafeeds. Aquaculture 435:403-411.

Essen DW, Nollens HH, Schmitt TL, Fritz KJ, Simeone CA, Stewart BS. 2015. Aphakic phacoemulsification and automated anterior vitrectomy, and postreturn monitoring of a rehabilitated harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) pup. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 46:647-651.

Fire SE, Flewelling LJ, Stolen M, Noke Durden W, de Wit M, Spellman AC, Wang Z. 2015. Brevetoxin-associated mass mortality event of bottlenose dolphins and manatees along the east coast of Florida, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 526:241-251.

Hawkyard M, Stuart K, Langdon C, Drawbridge M. 2015. The enrichment of rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia franciscana with taurine liposomes and their subsequent effects on the larval development of California yellowtail (Seriola lalandi). Aquaculture Nutrition DOI: 10.1111/anu.12317.

Rombenso AN, Trushenski JT, Jirsa D, Drawbridge M. 2015. Successful fish oil sparing in White Seabass feeds using saturated fatty acid-rich soybean oil and 22:6n-3 (DHA) supplementation. Aquaculture 448:176-185.

Rossman S, Ostrom PH, Stolen M, Barros NB, Gandhi H, Stricker CA, Wells RS. 2015. Individual specialization in the foraging habits of female bottlenose dolphins living in a trophically diverse and habitat rich estuary. Oecologia 178:415-425.

Stuart K, Rotman F, Drawbridge M. 2015. Methods of microbial control in marine fish larval rearing: clay-based turbidity and passivelarval transfer. Aquaculture Research 2015:1-11.

Tosh CA, Nico de Bruyn PJ, Steyn J, Bornemann H, van den Hoff J, Stewart BS, Plotz J, Bester MN. 2015. The importance of seasonal sea surface height anomalies for foraging juvenile southern elephant seals. Marine Biology 162:2131-2140.


Gruenthal KM, Gauger BJ, Drawbridge MA. 2014. Maternal reproductive exhaustion in a broadcast spawning marine finfish cultured for conservation. Aquaculture 422-423:129-135.

Jirsa, D.O., D.A. Davis, L.A. Roy, and M.A. Drawbridge. 2014. Response of white seabass Atractoscion nobilis to practical diets with varying levels of protein. N Am J Aqua

Jirsa, D, Davis, DA, Salze GP, Rhodes, M, and Drawbridge, M. 2014. Taurine requirement for juvenile white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) fed soy-based diets. Aquaculture 422-423:36-41.

Kershenbaum, A., A.E. Bowles, T.M. Freeberg, D.Z. Jin, A.R. Lameira and K. Bohn. 2014. Animal vocal sequences: not the Markov chains we thought they were.  Proc R Soc B 281:20141370.

Musser, W.B., A.E. Bowles, D.M. Grebner and J.L. Crance. 2014. Differences in acoustic features of vocalizations produced by killer whales cross-socialized with bottlenose dolphins. J Acoust Soc Am 136:1990-2002.

Stewart, B.S. 2014. Family Odobenidae (walrus). Pp. 102-119 In: Wilson, D.E. and R.A. Mittermeier, eds. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 4, Sea Mammals. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Stewart, B.S.  2014. Family Phocidae (earless seals). Pp. 120-183 In: Wilson, D.E. and R.A. Mittermeier, eds. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 4, Sea Mammals. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Stewart, B.S. and J.S. Grove. 2014. An extreme wandering leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, at Pitcairn Island, central South Pacific. Polar Biol (doi 10.1007/s00300-014-1447-4)

Trushenski JT, Rombenso AN, Page M, Jirsa D, Drawbridge M. 2014. Traditional and fermented soybean meals as ingredients in feeds for white seabass and yellowtail jack. North American Journal of Aquaculture 76:312-322.

Worthy, G.A.J., T.A.M. Worthy, P.K.Yochem and C. Dold. 2014. Basal metabolism of an adult male killer whale (Orcinus orca). Mar Mamm Sci  30:1229-1237.


Boyce, W.M., I. Mena, P.K. Yochem, F.M.D. Gulland, A. Garcia-Sastre, N. Moreno, D.R. Perez, A.S. Gonzalez-Reiche and B.S. Stewart. 2013. Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in marine mammals in California.  Emerg Microb Infect (Nature) doi:10.1038/emi.2013.40.

Crance, J.L., A.E. Bowles and A. Garver. 2013. Evidence for vocal learning in juvenile male killer whales, Orcinus orca, from an adventitious cross-socializing experiment. J Exp Biol 217:1229-1237.

Gruenthal, K.M., D.A. Witting, T. Ford, M.J. Neuman, J.P. Williams, D.J. Pondella II, A. Bird, N. Caruso, J.R. Hyde, L.W. Seeb, and W.A. Larson. 2013. Development and application of genomic tools to the restoration of green abalone in southern California. Conserv Gen doi:10.1007/s10592-013-0524-5.

Jirsa, D.O., D.-F. Deng, D.A. Davis, S. Hung, and M. Drawbridge. 2013. The effects of dietary lipid level on heat-shock proteins in white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis). Aqua Nutr 19:227-232.

 Jirsa, D.O., G.P. Salze, F.T. Barrows, D.A. Davis and M.A. Drawbridge. 2013. First-limiting amino acids in soybean-based diets for white seabass Atractoscion nobilis. Aquaculture 414-415:167-172.

Owen, M.A. and A.E. Bowles. 2013.  Auditory psychophysics and the management of a threatened large carnivore, the polar bear (Ursus maritimus). International Journal of Comparative Psychology.

Quinley, N, J.A.K. Mazet, R. Rivera, T.L. Schmitt, C. Dold, J. McBain, V. Fritsch and P.K. Yochem. 2013. Serologic response of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to vaccination with a recombinant canine distemper vaccine.  J Wildl Dis 49:579-586.

Silbernagel, C., D.L. Clifford, J. Bettaso, S. Worth and J. Foley. 2013. Prevalence of selected pathogens in western pond turtles and sympatric introduced red-eared sliders in California. Dis Aquat Org 107:37-47.

Stolen, M., W. Noke Durden, T. Mazza, N. Barros, and J. St. Leger. 2013. Effects of fishing gear on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon system, Florida.  Mar Mamm Sci 29:356-364.

Stolen, M., J. St. Leger, W.N. Durden, T. Mazza and E. Nilson. 2013. Fatal asphyxiation in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon.  PLoS One 8(6):e66828.

Stuart, K.R. 2013. The effect of light on larval rearing of marine finfish. Chapter 2, Pp 25-40 in J.G. Qin (ed). Larval fish aquaculture. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY.

Trushenski, J., B. Mulligan, D. Jirsa, and M. Drawbridge. 2013. Sparing fish oil with soybean oil in feeds for white seabass:  effects of inclusion rate and soybean oil composition. N Am J Aqua 75:305-315.


Bowles, A.E. and R.C. Anderson. 2012. Behavioral responses and habituation of pinnipeds and small cetaceans to novel objects and simulated fishing gear with and without a pinger.  Aquat Mamm 38:161-188.

Gruenthal, K.M., and M.A. Drawbridge. 2012. Toward responsible stock enhancement:  broadcast spawning dynamics and adaptive genetic management in white seabass aquaculture. Evol Appl 5:405-417.

Hart, L.B., D.S. Rotstein, R.S. Wells, J. Allen, A. Barleycorn, B.C. Balmer, S.M. Lane, T. Speakman, E.S. Zolman, M. Stolen, W. McFee, T. Goldstein, T.K. Rowles and L.H. Schwacke.  2012.  Skin lesions on common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from three sites in the Northwest Atlantic, USA.  PLoS One 7(3):e330081.

Kastner, R., A. Lin, C. Schurgers, J. Jaffe, P. Franks and B.S. Stewart. 2012. Sensor platforms for multimodal underwater monitoring. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Green Computing (IGCC ’13), June 2012, Arlington, VA. IEEE 978-1-4673-2154/9/12.

Rivera, R., R. Robles-Sikisaka, E.M. Hoffman, B.A. Stacy, E.D. Jensen, H.H. Nollens and J.F.X. Wellehan, Jr. 2012. Characterization of a novel papillomavirus species (ZcPV1) from two California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Vet Microbiology 155:257-266.

Robles-Sikisaka, R., R. Rivera, H.H. Nollens, J. St. Leger, W.N. Durden, M. Stolen, J. Burchell and J.F. Wellehan, Jr. 2012. Evidence of recombination and positive selection in cetacean papillomaviruses.  Virol 427:189-197.

Smiley, J., M. Okihiro, M. Drawbridge, and R. Kaufmann. 2012. Pathology of ocular lesions associated with gas supersaturation in white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis). J Aquat Anim Health 24:1-10.

Southwell, C., J. Bengtson, M. Bester, A. S. Blix, H. Bornemann, P.  Boveng, M. Cameron, J. Forcada, J. Laake, E. Nordoy, J. Plotz, T. Rogers, D. Southwell, B. S. Stewart, P. Trathan.  2012.  A review of data on abundance, trends in abundance, habitat use and diet of ice-breeding seals in the Southern Ocean.  CCAMLR Science 19:49-74.

Stuart, K., and M. Drawbridge. 2012. Captive spawning and larval rearing of California yellowtail (Seriola lalandi). Aqua Res 44:728-737.

Stuart, K., and M. Drawbridge. 2012. Spawning and larval rearing of yellowtail amberjack (Seriola lalandi) in Southern California. Bull Fish Res Agen 35:15-21.

Stuart, K., and M. Drawbridge. 2012. The effect of photoperiod on larval culture performance of two marine finfish species. Aquaculture 360-361:54-57.

Tosh, C.A., J. Steyn, H. Bornemann, J. van den Hoff, B.S. Stewart, J. Plotz and M.N. Bester. 2012. Marine habitats of juvenile southern elephant seals from Marion Island.  Aquat Biol 17:71-79.

Williams, J., J. Claisse, D. Pondella II, L. Medeiros, C.F. Valle, and M. Shane. 2012. Patterns of life history and habitat use of an important recreational fishery species, spotfin croaker, and their potential fishery implications. Mar Coastal Fish: Dyn Mgmt Ecosys Sci 4:71-84.

Venn-Watson, S., C. Benham, F.M.D. Gulland, C.R. Smith, J. St. Leger, P.K. Yochem, H. Nollens, J. Saliki, K. Colegrove, J.F.X. Wellehan, Jr., and R. Rivera.  2012. Clinical relevance of novel Otarine herpesvirus-3 in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): lymphoma, esophageal ulcers, and stranding.  Vet Res Dec 12; 43(1).


Bengtson, J.L., J.L. Laake, P.L. Boveng, M.F. Cameron, M. B. Hanson and B.S. Stewart. 2011.  Distribution, density, and abundance of pack-ice seals in the Amundsen and Ross Seas, Antarctica.  Deep-Sea Research II 58:1261-1276.

Blight, L. K., D. G. Ainley, S. F. Ackley, G. Ballard, T. Ballerini, R. L.Brownell, Jr., C. –H. C. Cheng, M. Chiantore, D. Costa, M. C. Couler, P. Dayton, A. L. Devries, R. Dunbar, S. Earle, J. T. Eastman, s. D. Emslie, C. W. Evans, R. A. Garrott, S. Kim, G. Kooyman, A. lescroel, M. Lizotte, M. massaro, S. Olmastroni, P. J. Ponganis, J. Russell, D. B. Siniff, W. O. Smith, Jr., B. S. Stewart, I. Stirling, J. Willis, P. Wilson, E. J. Woehler.  2011.  Fishing for data in the Ross Sea.  Science 220:1316.

Curtis, C., B. S. Stewart, S. A. Karl.  2011. Genetically effective population sizes of Antarctic seals estimated from maternally, paternally, and biparentally inherited genes.  Conservation Genetics 12:1435-1446.

Durden, W.N., E.D. Stolen and M.K. Stolen. 2011. Abundance, distribution and group composition of the Indian River Lagoon bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, using an aerial survey. Aquatic Mammals 37:175-186.

Fodrie, F.J., B.J. Becker, L.A. Levin, K. Gruenthal, and P. McMillan. 2011. Connectivity clues from short-term variability in settlement and geochemical tags of mytilid mussels. Journal of Sea Research 65:141-150.

Galaviz, M.A., A. Garcia-Gasca, M. Drawbridge, C.A. Ivarez-Gonales, L.M. Lopez. 2011. Ontogeny of the digestive tract and enzymatic activity in white seabass, Atractoscion nobilis, larvae. Aquaculture 318:162-168.

Hayward, L.S., A. Bowles, J.C. Ha and S.K. Wasser.  2011.  Impacts of acute and long-term vehicle exposure on physiology and reproductive success of the northern spotted owl.  Ecosphere 2(6), Article 65:1-20. (On-line journal of the Ecological Society of America)

Jirsa, D., A. Davis, K.Stuart and M. Drawbridge. 2011. Development of a practical soy-based diet for California yellowtail, Seriola lalandi.  Aquaculture Nutrition 17:e869-e874.

Rotman, F.J., M. Riche, P. Van Wyk, and D.D. Benetti. 2011. Efficacy of a commercial probiotic relative to oxytetracycline as gram-negative bacterial control agents in a rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) batch culture. North American Journal of Aquaculture 73:343-349.

Schlundt, C.E., R.L. Dear, D.S. Houser, A.E. Bowles, T. Reidarson, J.J. Finneran.  2011. Auditory evoked potentials in two short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 129: 1111-1116.

Smiley, J.E., M.A. Drawbridge, M.S. Okihiro, and R.S. Kaufmann. 2011. Acute effects of gas supersaturation on juvenile cultured white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140:1269-1276.

Stavros, H.W., M. Stolen, W. Noke Durden, W. Mcfee, G.D. Bossart and P.A. Fair. 2011.Comparison and correlation of trace elements in tissues from stranded and free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the U.S. southeastern Atlantic coast. Chemosphere 82:1649-1661.

Stuart, K. and M. Drawbridge. 2011. The effect of light intensity and green water on survival and growth of cultured larval California yellowtail (Seriola lalandi). Aquaculture 321:152-156.

Wellehan, J.F.X. Jr., R. Rivera, L.L. Archer, C. Benham, J.K. Muller, K. M. Colegrove, F.M.D. Gulland, J.A. St. Leger, S.K. Venn-Watson and H.H. Nollens. 2011. Characterization of California sea lion polyomavirus 1: expansion of the known host range of the Polyomaviridae to Carnivora. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 11:987-996.


Alves-Stanley, C.D. and G.A.J. Worthy. 2010. Feeding preferences of the West Indian manatee in Florida, Belize and Puerto Rico, as indicated by stable isotope analysis.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 402:255-267.

Blight, L.K. et al. (including B.S. Stewart). 2010. Fishing for data in the Ross Sea.  Science 330:1316.

Bowles, A.E., S.L. Denes, and M. Shane. 2010.  Acoustic characteristics of ultrasonic coded transmitters for fishery applications: could marine mammals hear them?  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 128:3223-3231.

Brillinger, D.R. and B.S. Stewart. 2010.Stochastic modeling of particle movement with applications to marine biology and oceanography.  Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference 140:3597-3607.

Colegrove, K.M., J.F.X. Wellehan Jr., R. Rivera, P.F. Moore, F.M.D. Gulland, L.J. Lowenstine, R.W. Nordhausen and H.H. Nollens. 2010. Polyomavirus infection in a free-ranging California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with intestinal T-cell lymphoma. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigations 22:628-632.

Durazoi, E., A.C. Cruz, L.M. Lo’ Pez, J.P. Lazo, M. Drawbridge and M.T. Viana. 2010. Effects of digestible protein levels in isonitrogenous diets on growth performance and tissue compositions of juvenile Atractoscion nobilis. Aquaculture Nutrition 16:54-60.

Hervas, S., K. Lorenzen, M.A. Shane and M.A. Drawbridge.  2010. Quantitative assessment of a white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) stock enhancement program in California:  Post-release dispersal, growth and survival.  Fisheries Research 105:237-243.

Jirsa, D.O., D.A. Davis, and M. Drawbridge. 2010. Development of a practical soy-based diet for white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis).  North American Journal of Aquaculture 72:332-337.

McFee, W.E., J.H. Schwacke, L.H. Schwacke, M.K. Stolen, K.D. Mullin. 2010. Investigation of growth phases for bottlenose dolphins using a Bayesian modeling approach. Marine Mammal Science 26:67-85.

Nollens, H.H., J.F. Wellehan, L. Archer, L. Lowenstine and F.M. Gulland.  2010. Detection of a respiratory coronavirus from tissues archived during a pneumonia epizootic in free-ranging Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina richardsii. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 90:113-120.

Rivera, R., H.H. Nollens, S. Venn-Watson, F.M.D. Gulland and J.F.X. Wellehan, Jr. 2010. Characterization of phylogenetically diverse astroviruses of marine mammals.  Journal of General Virology 91:166-173.

Sleeman, J.C., M.G. Meekan, B.S. Stewart, S.G. Wilson, J.J. Polovina, J.D. Stevens, G.S. Boggs and C.J.A. Bradshaw. 2010. To go or not to go with the flow:  Environmental influences on whale shark movement patterns. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 390:84-98.

Stuart, K.R., M. Keller and M. Drawbridge.  2010. Efficacy of formalin and povidone-iodine disinfection techniques on the eggs of three marine finfish species.  Aquaculture Research 41:e838-e843.

Vizcaíno-Ochoa, V., B. Barón-Sevilla, and M. Drawbridge. 2010. The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on growth, survival and pigmentation of California halibut Paralichthys californicus larvae (Ayres, 1810).  Aquaculture 302:228-234.

Wellehan, J.R. Jr., F. Yu, S.K. Venn-Watson, E.D. Jensen, C.R. Smith, W.G. Farmerie and H.H. Nollens. 2010. Characterization of San Miguel sea lion virus populations using pyrosequencing-based methods. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 10:254-260.

Wilson, R.P., Y. Watanuki, N. Miyazaki and B.S. Stewart. 2010. Working beneath the surface: interplay of biomechanics, physiology and behavioural ecology in diving seabirds.  Aquatic Biology 8:191-192.

Wilson, R.P., Y. Watanuki, N. Miyazaki and B.S. Stewart (eds.). 2010. Ecophysiology and biomechanics in diving seabirds. Inter-Research 8:189-304.


Alves-Stanley, C.D. and G.A.J. Worthy. 2009.  Carbon and nitrogen turnover rates and diet-tissue discrimination in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).  The Journal of Experimental Biology 212:2349-2355.

Arnold W.R., J.S. Cotsifas, D.S. Smith, S. LePage and K.M. Gruenthal.  2009. A comparison of copper sensitivity of Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis in ambient saltwater of varying dissolved organic matter concentrations: implications for determining the ambient copper saltwater criteria. Environmental Toxicology 24: 618-628

Bengtson, J.L., J.L. Laake, P.L. Boveng, M.F. Cameron, M. B. Hanson and B.S. Stewart.  2009.  Distribution, density, and abundance of pack-ice seals in the Amundsen and Ross Seas, Antarctica.  Deep-Sea Research II.

Castellini, M.A., S.J. Trumble, T.L. Mau, P.K. Yochem, B.S. Stewart and M.A. Koski. 2009.  Body and blubber relationships in Antarctic pack-ice seals: Implications for the control of blubber depth. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 82: 113-120.

Curtis, C., B.S. Stewart and S.A. Karl.  2009.  Pleistocene population expansion of Antarctic seals.  Molecular Ecology 18:2112-2121.

Durden, W.N., J. St. Leger, M. Stolen, T. Mazza. C. Londono.  2009. Lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45:849-856.

Fauquier, D.A., M.J. Kinsel, M.D. Dailey, G.E. Sutton, M.K. Stolen, R.S.Wells, and F.M.D. Gulland. 2009. Prevalence and pathology of lungworm infection in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from southwest Florida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 88:85-90.

Fire, S.E., Z. Wang, T.A. Leighfield, S.L. Morton, W.E. McFee, W.A. McLellan, R.W. Litaker, P.A. Tester, A.A. Hohn, G. Lovewell, C. Harms, D.S. Rothstein, S.G. Barco, A. Costidis, B. Sheppard, G.D. Bossart, M. Stolen, W.N. Durden, F.M. Van Dolah. 2009.  Domoic acid exposure in pygmy and dwarf sperm whales (Kogia spp.) from southeastern and mid-Atlantic waters.  Harmful Algae 8:658-664.

Jirsa, D.O., M. Drawbridge and K. Stuart. 2009. The effects of tank color and light intensity on growth, survival and stress tolerance of white seabass, Atractoscion nobilis larvae. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 40:702-709.

López, L., E. Durazo, , M.T. Viana, M. Drawbridge and D. P. Bureau. 2009. Effect of dietary lipid levels on performance, body composition and fatty acid profile of juvenile white seabass, Atractoscion nobilis. Aquaculture 289:101-105.

Nollens, H.H., R. Rivera, G. Palacios, J.F. Wellehan, J.T. Saliki, S.L. Caseltine, C.R. Smith, E.D. Jensen, J. Hui, W.I. Lipkin, P.K. Yochem, R.S. Wells, J. St. Leger and S. Venn-Watson. 2009.  New recognition of enterovirus infections in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Veterinary Microbiology 139:170-175.

Stewart, B.S.  2009.  Diving Behavior.  Pp. 321-327 In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. W.F. Perrin, B. Wursig and G. W. Thewissen (eds.). Second Edition.  Academic Press, San Diego.

Witteveen, B.H., G.A.J. Worthy, K.M. Wynne and J.D. Roth. 2009.  Population structure of North Pacific humpback whales on their feeding grounds as shown by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 379:299-310.

Yochem, P.K. and B.S. Stewart.  2009.  Hair and fur.  Pp.  529-530.  In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. W.F. Perrin, B. Wursig and G. W. Thewissen (eds.). Second Edition.  Academic Press, San Diego.

Yochem, P.K., B.S. Stewart, T.S. Gelatt and D.B. Siniff. 2009.  Health assessment of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.  Pp. 123-138 In: Diseases of Antarctic Wildlife. K.R. Kerry and M.J. Riddle (eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin.



Aalbers, S.A. 2008.  Seasonal, diel, and lunar spawning periodicities and associated sound production of white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis).  Fisheries Bulletin 106:143-151.

Aalbers, S.A. and M.A. Drawbridge.  2008.  White seabass spawning behavior and sound production.  Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137:542-550.

Akamatsu, T., D. Wang, K. Wang, S. Li, S. Dong, X. Zhao, J. Barlow, B.S. Stewart and M. Richlen.  2008.  Estimation of the detection probability for Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis) with a passive acoustic method.  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 123:4403-4411.

Bloodworth, B.E. and D.K. Odell.  2008.  Kogia breviceps (Cetacea:Kogiidae).  Mammalian Species 819:1-12, plus audio and video online.

Brillinger, D.R., B.S. Stewart and C.S. Littnan. 2008. Three months journeying of a Hawaiian monk seal.  IMS Collections 2:246-264.  (Probability and Statistics:  Essays in Honor of David A. Freedman.)

Hunt, T.D., M.H. Ziccardi, F.M.D. Gulland, P.K. Yochem, D.W. Hird, T. Rowles and J.A.K. Mazet. 2008. Health risks for marine mammal workers.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 81:81-92.

Li, S., T. Akamatsu, D. Wang, K. Wang, S. Dong, X. Zhao, Z. Wei, X. Zhang, B. Taylor, L. A. Barrett, S. T. Turvey, R. R. Reeves, B. S. Stewart, M. Richlen, and J. R. Brandon.  2008.  Indirect evidence of boat avoidance behavior of Yangtze finless porpoises. Bioacoustics (The International Journal of Animal Sound and its Recording) 17:151-193.

Mazzoil, M.S., S. D. McCulloch, M.J. Youngbluth, D.S. Kilpatrick, M.E. Murdoch, B. Mase-Guthrie, D.K. Odell and G.D. Bossart.  2008.  Radio-tracking and survivorship of two rehabilitated bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida.  Aquatic Mammals 34:54-64.

Mendoza, L, A.F.F. Belone, R. Vilela, M. Rehtanz, G.D. Bossart, J.S. Reif, P.A. Fair, W.N. Durden,  J. St. Leger; L.R. Travassos and P.S. Rosa. 2008.  Use of sera from humans and dolphins with lacaziosis and sera from experimentally infected mice for Western Blot analyses of Lacazia loboi antigens.  Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 15: 164-167.

Nollens, H.H., J.F.X. Wellehan, J.T. Saliki, S.L. Caseltine, E.D. Jensen, W. Van Bonn, and S. Venn-Watson. 2008.  Characterization of a parainfluenza virus isolated from a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Veterinary Microbiology 128:231-242.

O’Shea, T.J. and D.K. Odell.  2008.  Large-scale marine ecosystem change and the conservation of marine mammals.  Journal of Mammalogy 89:529-533.

Smiley, J.E. and M.A. Drawbridge. 2008.  A simple apparatus for maintaining gas-supersaturated seawater in the laboratory for experimental purposes.  North American Journal of Aquaculture 70:61-67.

Venn-Watson, S., R. Rivera, C.R. Smith, J.T. Saliki, S. Caseltine, J. St. Leger, P. Yochem, R.S. Wells and H. Nollens.  2008.  Exposure to a novel parainfluenza virus and clinical relevance in 2 bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) populations.  Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:397-405.

Ylitalo, G.M., M. Myers, B.S. Stewart, P.K. Yochem, R. Braun, L. Kashinsky, D. Boyd, G.A. Antonelis, S. Atkinson, A.A. Aguirre and M.M. Krahn. 2008. Organochlorine contaminants in endangered Hawaiian monk seals from four subpopulations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.  Marine Pollution Bulletin 56:231-244.

Yochem, P.K., F.M.D. Gulland, B.S. Stewart, M. Haulena, J.A.K. Mazet and W.M. Boyce.  2008. Thyroid function testing in elephant seals in health and disease.  General and Comparative Endocrinology 155:627-632.

Yochem, P.K., B.S. Stewart, J.A.K. Mazet and W.M. Boyce. 2008. Hematologic and serum biochemical profile of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris):  variation with age, sex and season.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44:911-921.

Zhao, X., J. Barlow, B. L. Taylor,R. L. Pitman, K. Wang, Z. Wei, B.S. Stewart, S. T. Turvey, T. Akamatsu, R. R. Reeves, D. Wang. In press.  Abundance and conservation status of the Yangtze finless porpoise in the Yangtze River, China.  Biological Conservation.

Zielinski, W.J., K.M. Slauson, and A.E. Bowles.  2008. Effects of off-highway vehicle use on the American marten.  Journal of Wildlife Management 72(7): 1558-1571



Smiley, J.E. and M.A. Drawbridge. Techniques for live capture of deepwater fishes with special emphasis on the design and application of a low-cost hyperbaric chamber. Journal of Fish Biology 70, 867-878. 2007.

Wilson, S.G., B.S. Stewart, J.J. Polovina, M.G. Meekan, J.D. Stevens and B. Galuardi.  2007.    Accuracy and precision of archival tag data:  a multiple-tagging study conducted on a whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Indian Ocean.  Fisheries Oceanography. 16:547-554.


Lopez, L.M., Torres, A.L., Durazo, E., Drawbridge, M.A. and D.P. Bureau. Effects of lipid on growth and feed utilization of white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) fingerlings. Aquaculture 253:557-563. 2006.

Stickney, Robert R., Barry Costa-Pierce, Donald M. Baltz, Mark Drawbridge, Churchill Grimes, Stephen Phillips and D. LaDon Swann. Toward Sustainable Open Ocean Aquaculture in the United States.Fisheries, Volume 13, No. 12. 2006.

Wilson, S.G., Polovina, J.J., Stewart, B.S., Meekan, M.G. Movements of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) tagged at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Marine Biology 148:1157-1166. 2006.


Wilson, S.G., Lutcavage, M.E., Brill, R.W., Genovese, M.P., Cooper, A.B., Everly, A.W. Movements of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean recorded by pop-up archival tags.Marine Biology 146:409-423. 2005.


Aalbers, S.A., G.M. Stutzer and M.A. Drawbridge. The effects of catch-and-release angling on the growth and survival of juvenile white seabass captured on offset circle and J-type hooks. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 24:793-800. 2004.

Ortiz, R.M. and G.A.J. Worthy. Could lower body fat mass contribute to cold-water susceptibility in calves of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). Marine Mammal Science 20:176-183. 2004.

Weber, D.S., B. S. Stewart, J. Schienman, and N. Lehman. Major histocompatibility complex variation at three class II loci in the northern elephant seal. Molecular Ecology. 13:711-718. 2004.

Wilson, S.G. Basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) schooling in the southern Gulf of Maine. Fisheries Oceanography 13:283-286. 2004.


Courbis, S.S. and G.A.J. Worthy. Opportunistic rather than incidental carnivory by Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)? Aquatic Mammals 29:104-107. 2003.

Curtis, P.A. Curtis P. A., Nakai T., M. Drawbridge, R.P. Hedrick, M.S. Okihiro and M. Adkison. Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) in White Seabass(Atractoscion nobilis), Cultured in Southern California, and Implications for Marine Fish Aquaculture, Symposium from Oceans 2003, San Diego CA. In Press. 2003.

Reeves, R.R. and B.S. Stewart. Marine Mammals of the World: An Introduction. In: Walker’s Mammals of the World. R.M. Nowak, R.R. Reeves, and B.S. Stewart. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 2003.

Turner, J.P. and G.A.J. Worthy. Skull morphometry of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 84:665-672. 2003.

Wilson, S.G., Meekan, M.G., Carleton, J.H., Stewart, T.C., Knott, B. Distribution, abundance and reproductive biology of Pseudeuphausia latifrons and other euphausiids on the southern North West Shelf, Western Australia. Marine Biology 142:369-379. 2003.

Wolski, L., R. Anderson, A.E. Bowles, P.K. Yochem. Measuring hearing in the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina): comparison of behavioral and auditory brainstem response techniques. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 113(1): 629-637. 2003.

Worthy, G.A.J.. A review of “Body composition analysis of animals: A handbook of non-destructive methods.” Ecoscience 10:124. 2003.


Bowles, A.E. Hearing by Whales and Dolphins. W.W.L. Au, A.N. Popper, and R.R. Fays (eds.). Marine Mammal Science 18(2): 567-571. 2002.

Drawbridge, M.A. Chapter 11: The Role of Aquaculture in the Restoration of Coastal Fisheries. In: Ecological Aquaculture, the Evolution of the Blue Revolution. Barry Costa-Pierce (ed). Blackwell Science. Osney Mead, Oxford. p. 314-336. 2002.

Lehman, N. E. and B. S. Stewart. Genetic variation in elephant seals. Pp. 121-129. In: Molecular and Cell Biology of Marine Mammals (C. J. Pfeiffer, ed.). Krieger Publishing Co., Inc., Melbourne, FL. 464 pp. 2002.

Noke, W. Interactions between the Indian River Lagoon blue crab fishery and the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Marine Mammal Science, 18: 819-832. 2002.

Noke, W. The association of echeneids with bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Aquatic Mammals. 2002.

Reeves, R. R., B. S. Stewart, P. J. Clapham, and J. A. Powell. National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 527 pp. 2002.

Odell, D.K. Sirenian Life History. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 2002.

Wilson, S.G., Pauly, T., Meekan, M.G. Distribution of zooplankton inferred from hydroacoustic backscatter data in coastal waters off Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 53:1005-1015. 2002.


Bowles, A.E., S. Wisdom, and K. Anderson. Call development and behavior of ‘JJ’, a rehabilitated gray whale calf, Eschrichtius robustus. Aquatic Mammals 27(3): 239-255. 2001.

Curtis, P.A., M. Drawbridge, T. Iwamoto, T. Nakai, R.P. Hedrick and A. P. Gendron. Nodavirus infection of juvenile white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) cultured in southern California: first record of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in North America. Journal of Fish Diseases 24; 263-271 2001.

Shane, Michael A. First records of Mexican barracuda (Sphyraena ensis) and additional records of scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) in southern California. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 100(3):160-166. 2001.

Ting, C., J. Garrelick, and A. Bowles. An analysis of the response of sooty tern eggs to sonic boom overpressures. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 111(1, pt. 2): 562-568. 2001.

Wilson, S.G., Taylor, J.G., Pearce, A.F. The seasonal aggregation of whale sharks at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: currents, migrations and the El Niño/ Southern Oscillation. Environmental Biology of Fishes 61:1-11. 2001.



Clark, S., D. K. Odell and C. T. Lacinak. Aspects of growth in captive killer whales (Orcinus orca).Marine Mammal Science 16(1): 177-202. 2000.


Bowles, A. E. Memories Frank Thomas Awbrey. Marine Mammal Science 15(1):262-265 1999.

Odell, D. K. and McClune, K. M. False Killer Whale – Pseudorca crassidens (Owen, 1846), Pp. 213-243, IN: S. H. Ridgway and R. J. Harrison (eds.), Handbook of Marine Mammals, Volume 6, The Second Book of Dolphins, Academic Press, London. 1999.


Bengtson, J. L., and B. S. Stewart. Diving patterns of a Ross seal (Ommatophoca rossii) in the western Weddell Sea. Polar Biology, 17: 214-218. 1997.

Van Olst, J., J. M. Carlberg, S. J. Mitchell, P. A. Curtis, M. J. Massingill et al. Development of domesticated broodstock and intensive fingerling culture techniques for commercial striped bass farming. National Science Foundation Small Business Innovation Research Program, Phase II Final Report, Grant # 9319827. 157 p 1997.


Shane, Michael A., W. Watson, and H. G. Moser. Polyprionidae: Giant seabasses and wreckfishes. In: H. G. Moser (ed.), The early stages of fishes in the California current region, p. 873-875. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Atlas No. 33. 1996.


Bartley, D.M., D.B. Kent and M.A. Drawbridge. Conservation of genetic diversity in a white seabass hatchery enhancement program in Southern California. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15:249-258. 1995.

Bowles, A.E. Responses of wildlife to noise. Chapter 8, pp. 154-213 in R.L. Knight and K.J. Gutzwiller (eds) Wildlife and Recreationists: Coexistence through Management and Research. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 1995.

Duffield, D.A., D.K. Odell, McBain, J.F. and B. Andrews. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) reproduction at Sea World. Zoo Biology, 14:417-430. 1995.

Donate Now

Help Human And Marine Life Thrive Together